What could cause neck pain?

Many people experience neck pain or stiffness occasionally. In many cases, it’s due to poor posture or overuse. Sometimes, neck pain is caused by injury from a fall, contact sports, or whiplash.

Your neck is made up of vertebrae that extend from the skull to the upper torso. Cervical discs absorb shock between the bones.

The bones, ligaments, and muscles of your neck support your head and allow for motion. Any abnormalities, inflammation, or injury can cause neck pain or stiffness.

Neck pain is a common complaint. Neck muscles can be strained from poor posture — whether it’s leaning over your computer or hunching over your workbench. Osteoarthritis also is a common cause of neck pain.

Rarely, neck pain can be a symptom of a more serious problem. Seek medical care if your neck pain is accompanied by numbness or loss of strength in your arms or hands or if you have shooting pain into your shoulder or down your arm.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms include:

  • Pain that’s often worsened by holding your head in one place for long periods, such as when driving or working at a computer
  • Muscle tightness and spasms
  • Decreased ability to move your head
  • Headache

Causes

Your neck is flexible and supports the weight of your head, so it can be vulnerable to injuries and conditions that cause pain and restrict motion. Neck pain causes include:

Nerve compression.

Herniated disks or bone spurs in the vertebrae of your neck can press on the nerves branching out from the spinal cord.

Injuries.

Rear-end auto collisions often result in whiplash injury, which occurs when the head is jerked backward and then forward, straining the soft tissues of the neck.

Muscle strains.

Overuse, such as too many hours hunched over your computer or smartphone, often triggers muscle strains. Even minor things, such as reading in bed or gritting your teeth, can strain neck muscles.

Worn joints.

Just like the other joints in your body, your neck joints tend to wear down with age. Osteoarthritis causes the cushions (cartilage) between your bones (vertebrae) to deteriorate. Your body then forms bone spurs that affect joint motion and cause pain.

Diseases.

Certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, meningitis or cancer, can cause neck pain.

How to ease neck pain at home

If you have minor neck pain or stiffness, take these simple steps to relieve it:
  • Avoid cradling the phone between your neck and shoulder.
  • Change your position often. Don’t stand or sit in one position for too long.
  • Get a gentle neck massage.
    Use a special neck pillow for sleeping.
  • Don’t use a neck brace or collar without your doctor’s approval. If you don’t use them properly, they can make your symptoms worse.
  • Apply ice for the first few days. After that, apply heat with a heating pad, hot compress, or by taking a hot shower.
  • Take OTC pain relievers, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen.
  • Take a few days off from sports, activities that aggravate your symptoms, and heavy lifting. When you resume normal activity, do so slowly as your symptoms ease.
  • Exercise your neck every day. Slowly stretch your head in side-to-side and up-and-down motions.
  • Use good posture.

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Prevention

Most neck pain is associated with poor posture combined with age-related wear and tear. To help prevent neck pain, keep your head centered over your spine. Some simple changes in your daily routine may help. Consider trying to:

Adjust your desk, chair and computer so that the monitor is at eye level. Knees should be slightly lower than hips. Use your chair’s armrests.

Use good posture. When standing and sitting, be sure your shoulders are in a straight line over your hips and your ears are directly over your shoulders.

Take frequent breaks. If you travel long distances or work long hours at your computer, get up, move around and stretch your neck and shoulders.

Sleep in a good position. Your head and neck should be aligned with your body. Use a small pillow under your neck. Try sleeping on your back with your thighs elevated on pillows, which will flatten your spinal muscles.

Avoid tucking the phone between your ear and shoulder when you talk. Use a headset or speakerphone instead.

If you smoke, quit. Smoking can put you at higher risk of developing neck pain.

Avoid carrying heavy bags with straps over your shoulder. The weight can strain your neck.

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